Bibliography for mark twain on the crimean war

Though unsuccessful as president, Grant's military reputation was almost universally acknowledged apparently Lord Wolseley was the only one to question his generalship. Twain regarded Grant as a "military genius," a man with "the gift of command, a natural eloquence, and an equally natural reserve" Fishkin,xvii.

Moreover, Twain admired Grant's moral character, his simplicity and personal incorruptibility, even though his administration had been riddled with scandal. After leaving the White House, Grant was reduced to a state of near poverty. Under these circumstances, Twain — as is well known — arranged to publish the Personal Memoirs of U.

Grant on terms much more favorable to the General than had originally been proposed by rival publishers. Less familiar is the story of Grant's visit to Hartford during Garfield's presidential campaign.

Twain later recalled the incident with some irony: ". If you had done and suffered for any other country what you have done and suffered for your own, you would have been affronted in the same sordid way" Notebooks and Journals II, So when Twain thought about the great military reputations of the 19th century, it was only natural that Wellington and Grant would have come to his mind as the two most outstanding figures.

In this context, it is intriguing to find in Twain's work descriptions of Grant that are suggestive of Scoresby.

InGrant was feted in Chicago at a reunion of the Army of the Tennessee. For the occasion a broadside was published which described Grant as "the admitted and undisputed Military Genius of the whole world" Kaplan, Twain was among the invited dignitaries asked to toast "the ladies," he instead toasted "the babies"and he used the occasion of sharing the stage with Grant to observe him closely.

At the high point of the ceremony, "[t]here wasn't a soldier on that stage who wasn't visibly affected, except the man who was being welcomed, Grant. No change of expression crossed his face" Autobiography In a letter to his wife Livy written just hours after the end of the ceremony, Twain referred to Grant's "iron serenity" Kaplan, ; for more on this, see Charles H.

In connection with the publication of Grant's MemoirsTwain noted, "He was the most modest of men. When Grant died in Julythe newspapers, naturally enough, were full of eulogies. One eulogy was delivered by Joe Twichell, who quoted Carlyle on "an occasion like the present, when a hero lay dead among his people: '.

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He did not call himself great: he did not deem that he was great. But for circumstance which with him was but another name for Providence, he humbly saw not why many another might not have won and worn his laurels — not understanding that it was of his greatness that he felt so. Never a fame like his was so little accounted of by him who gained it" Twichell, Twain visited Grant on a number of occasions in the months prior to his death.

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After one such visit, Twain noted, "One marked feature of General Grant's character is his exceeding gentleness, goodness, sweetness. Every time I have been. Writing to Henry Ward Beecher just after the Grant's death, Twain spoke of "his exceeding gentleness, kindness, forbearance, lovingness, charity.

Compare the vocabulary used to describe Scoresby: "the quietness, the reserve, the noble gravity of his countenance; the simple honesty that expressed itself all over him; the sweet unconsciousness of his greatness — unconsciousness of the hundreds of admiring eyes fastened upon him," unconsciousness of the love flowing toward him.

The only thing missing in Scoresby is the quality of iron. Grant, of course, received his military training at West Point, not Woolwich. While there, "he discovered that he had a facility for mathematics. And in all other outward aspects as well, Scoresby has been given none of Grant's biography. Why, then, should Scoresby be endowed with so many of his personal characteristics?

Justin Kaplan has pointed out that the relationship between Twain and Grant is more complex than usually assumed. Twain's feelings for the general were not unmixed admiration and affection, not just "Grant-intoxication.

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Could it be that "Luck" belongs, at least tangentially, to this discourse? Though not published untilthe story was written only one year after Grant's death, when the papers had been filled with outpourings of the nation's grief and admiration. There was certainly no shortage of fervent hero-worship upon the death of U. And if Twain was always a bit suspicious of alleged heroes, he was more than skeptical when it came to the effusive adulation of them. Scoresby — Wolseley — Wesley — Grant.It is generally accepted that after the Napoleonic Wars, the British army went into a decline.

According to Lord Garnet Wolseley, war "as an art was not studied, and hence, when the Crimean War broke out, so ignorant were our generals and our colonels, it is a marvel to me that any of us survived.

Our officers had no training. They never read a book upon military matters, and at the mess, when allusion was made to tactics, or military problems, the offender was summarily told to 'shut up. So it comes as no surprise that the Crimean War has long provided historians with a wealth of examples of incompetent generalship.

Even contemporaries were aware of the deficiencies of the senior officer corps. The long list of derisive descriptions and nicknames for generals shows the low esteem in which they were held. One general was called an "old imbecile bully," another a "nincompoop" and "a shocking old dolt," yet another a "terrible fool" Edgerton, Subaltern officers in the Crimea seemed to vie to outdo each other in original descriptions of how stupid their commanding officers were.

One was called "the biggest fool in the army," and another had the distinction of being "the biggest fool ever" Hibbert, For our purposes, the names of these generals — now known only to specialists — are neither here nor there. Not one of them has ever passed for a military genius. If Twain had anyone in mind when writing "Luck," it was not one of them.

The British commander Lord Raglan was loved by some and respected by most, but no one considered him a very great general, including Raglan himself. The French commander, Canrobert, was by some accounts more popular among the British troops than any British general; indeed, he was said by one British officer to be the only one who had "not made a fool of himself" Hibbert But it was Lord Wolseley, writing more than 50 years later, who offered the most comprehensive indictment of the incompetence of commanders and staff officers in the Crimea.

What generals then had charge of England's only army, and of her honour and fighting reputation! They were served to a large extent by incompetent staff officers as useless as themselves; many of them merely flaneurs 'about town,' who knew as little of war and its science as they did of the Differential Calculus! Almost all our officers at that time were uneducated as soldiers, and many of those placed upon the staff of the Army at the beginning of the war were absolutely unfit for positions they had secured through family or political interest.

There were, of course, a few brilliant exceptions, but they made the incompetence of the many all the more remarkable. The great bulk of the staff at home, and most of those selected for staff work with the army sent to Turkey, were chosen for family reasons.

However, that was soon changed, for they were found to be mostly incompetent for all practical work in the field.

Clever educated professional soldiers took their places as vacancies occurred.Mark Twain was an American humorist, novelist, and travel writer. Twain is widely considered one of the greatest American writers of all time. Mark Twain is the pen name of Samuel Clemens. Although the exact origins of the name are unknown, it is worth noting that Clemens operated riverboats, and mark twain is a nautical term for water found to be two fathoms 12 feet [3.

Mark Twain was born on November 30,in Florida, Missouri. In his family moved to the Mississippi port town of Hannibal in search of greater economic opportunities. In Old Times on the Mississippihe recalled his childhood in Hannibal with fondness. Three years later his elder brother, Orion, bought the Hannibal Journaland Twain began working for him as a typesetter.

Occasionally, he contributed sketches and articles to the Journal. During his lifetime Mark Twain wrote more than 20 novels. Mark Twain died on April 21, Samuel Clemens, the sixth child of John Marshall and Jane Lampton Clemens, was born two months prematurely and was in relatively poor health for the first 10 years of his life. His mother tried various allopathic and hydropathic remedies on him during those early years, and his recollections of those instances along with other memories of his growing up would eventually find their way into Tom Sawyer and other writings.

Because he was sickly, Clemens was often coddled, particularly by his mother, and he developed early the tendency to test her indulgence through mischief, offering only his good nature as bond for the domestic crimes he was apt to commit.

bibliography for mark twain on the crimean war

Insofar as Clemens could be said to have inherited his sense of humourit would have come from his mother, not his father. John Clemens, by all reports, was a serious man who seldom demonstrated affection. No doubt his temperament was affected by his worries over his financial situation, made all the more distressing by a series of business failures.

It was the diminishing fortunes of the Clemens family that led them in to move 30 miles 50 km east from FloridaMissourito the Mississippi River port town of Hannibalwhere there were greater opportunities. In the meantime, the debts accumulated.

bibliography for mark twain on the crimean war

Still, John Clemens believed the Tennessee land he had purchased in the late s some 70, acres [28, hectares] might one day make them wealthy, and this prospect cultivated in the children a dreamy hope. Late in his life, Twain reflected on this promise that became a curse:. It put our energies to sleep and made visionaries of us—dreamers and indolent. The man who has not experienced it cannot imagine the curse of it.

Judging from his own speculative ventures in silver miningbusiness, and publishing, it was a curse that Sam Clemens never quite outgrew. Perhaps it was the romantic visionary in him that caused Clemens to recall his youth in Hannibal with such fondness. The gamblers, stevedores, and pilots, the boisterous raftsmen and elegant travelers, all bound for somewhere surely glamorous and exciting, would have impressed a young boy and stimulated his already active imagination.

And the lives he might imagine for these living people could easily be embroidered by the romantic exploits he read in the works of James Fenimore CooperSir Walter Scottand others. Those same adventures could be reenacted with his companions as well, and Clemens and his friends did play at being pirates, Robin Hoodand other fabled adventurers.He was also a riverboat pilot, journalist, lecturer, entrepreneur and inventor. When he was 4 years old, his family moved to nearby Hannibal, a bustling river town of 1, people.

John Clemens worked as a storekeeper, lawyer, judge and land speculator, dreaming of wealth but never achieving it, sometimes finding it hard to feed his family.

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He was an unsmiling fellow; according to one legend, young Sam never saw his father laugh. His mother, by contrast, was a fun-loving, tenderhearted homemaker who whiled away many a winter's night for her family by telling stories.

Mark Twain

She became head of the household in when John died unexpectedly. The Clemens family "now became almost destitute," wrote biographer Everett Emerson, and was forced into years of economic struggle — a fact that would shape the career of Twain. Twain stayed in Hannibal until age The town, situated on the Mississippi River, was in many ways a splendid place to grow up.

Steamboats arrived there three times a day, tooting their whistles; circuses, minstrel shows and revivalists paid visits; a decent library was available; and tradesmen such as blacksmiths and tanners practiced their entertaining crafts for all to see. However, violence was commonplace, and young Twain witnessed much death: When he was nine years old, he saw a local man murder a cattle rancher, and at 10 he watched an enslaved person die after a white overseer struck him with a piece of iron.

Hannibal inspired several of Twain's fictional locales, including "St. Petersburg" in Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. These imaginary river towns are complex places: sunlit and exuberant on the one hand, but also vipers' nests of cruelty, poverty, drunkenness, loneliness and soul-crushing boredom — all parts of Twain's boyhood experience.

bibliography for mark twain on the crimean war

Sam kept up his schooling until he was about 12 years old, when — with his father dead and the family needing a source of income — he found employment as an apprentice printer at the Hannibal Courierwhich paid him with a meager ration of food. Inat 15, he got a job as a printer and occasional writer and editor at the Hannibal Western Uniona little newspaper owned by his brother, Orion.

Then, inyear-old Twain fulfilled a dream: He began learning the art of piloting a steamboat on the Mississippi. A licensed steamboat pilot byhe soon found regular employment plying the shoals and channels of the great river. Twain loved his career — it was exciting, well-paying and high-status, roughly akin to flying a jetliner today. However, his service was cut short in by the outbreak of the Civil Warwhich halted most civilian traffic on the river.

As the Civil War began, the people of Missouri angrily split between support for the Union and the Confederate States. Twain opted for the latter, joining the Confederate Army in June but serving for only a couple of weeks until his volunteer unit disbanded. Where, he wondered then, would he find his future? What venue would bring him both excitement and cash? His answer: the great American West. In JulyTwain climbed on board a stagecoach and headed for Nevada and California, where he would live for the next five years.

At first, he prospected for silver and gold, convinced that he would become the savior of his struggling family and the sharpest-dressed man in Virginia City and San Francisco. But nothing panned out, and by the middle ofhe was flat broke and in need of a regular job. He churned out news stories, editorials and sketches, and along the way adopted the pen name Mark Twain — steamboat slang for 12 feet of water.

Twain became one of the best-known storytellers in the West. He honed a distinctive narrative style — friendly, funny, irreverent, often satirical and always eager to deflate the pretentious. He got a big break inwhen one of his tales about life in a mining camp, "Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog," was printed in newspapers and magazines around the country the story later appeared under various titles. His next step up the ladder of success came inwhen he took a five-month sea cruise in the Mediterranean, writing humorously about the sights for American newspapers with an eye toward getting a book out of the trip.The soldier whose real name was not given is seen as a fool by the clergyman who was an instructor in the military school at Woolwich.

However, he becomes immortal thanks to the luck of him in the Crimean War. Mark Twain on the Crimean War, 1 The reality of the story also emphasizes the reality of the time; because, the story is formed around a real time, the Crimean War, which is a very important element as the setting and time in the story. It is given in honour of one of the two or three significant military names of that generation. The narrator seems to be teasing us to speculate on the general's real identity.

Paragraph 4 After hearing this verdict, the narrator tells the story the clergy told him.

bibliography for mark twain on the crimean war

Paragraph 5 About forty years ago, in his times in the military academy at Woolrich, the clergyman came accross Scoresby in the preliminary examination. Out of pity, the clergyman had tutored him in Caesar's history; as luck would have it, the examiners asked him only about what he had been tutored in, with the result that he passed with flying colors.

Of course, it is again thanks to his luck. Paragraph 8. The Crimean War [1] started in and while the story, Luck was written in The clergyman had also been an instructor at Woolrich before the Crimean War. In times of the Crimean War, he has a chance to draw out Scoresby.

The Crimean War firstly appears as the significant point for the setting and time in the story, because it is where Scoresby wins his reputation and immortality.

Scoresby rises through the ranks quickly on the battlefield as superior officers get gunned down. However, the result is the very opposite. Paragraph 11 But, his assistance to him becomes very unnecessary. For even though Scoresby was totally incompetent, everybody "misinterpreted his performance every time — consequently they took his idiotic blunders for inspirations of genius" Paragraph The Crimean War as the setting and time is significant in terms of winning reputation and immortality for the main character, Scoresby.

If the Crimean War was not a chance for Scoresby, he could have a passive position because of his unawareness of his luck.

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Thanks to the importance of the Crimean War in history, his luck becomes outrageous and clear for the readers. Being appeared of him and his luck in the Crimean War and being emphasized with the Crimean War make the story and main character more effective. At this crucial moment, Scoresby ordered "a charge over a neighboring hill where there wasn't a suggestion of an enemy.

Though his order made no sense, it was obeyed. Arriving at the top of the hill, Scoresby found an "entire and unsuspected Russian army in reserve! Once again, though, luck intervened. The Russians decided: "It must be the entire English army, and that the sly Russian game was detected and blocked; so they turned tail, and away they went, pell-mell, over the hill and down into the field, in wild confusion". In their panic, they swept away the rest of the Russian army, and the Allied victory was secured.

Scoresby was decorated on the field of battle by Marshal Canrobert himself.When Scoresby is said to be unconscious "of the deep, loving, sincere worship welling out of the breasts of those people and flowing toward him," sometimes my overeager students in Moldova took this as a possible winking reference to Wellington Merry Tales67, emphasis added. From "Arthur Wesley" it is no great leap to "Arthur Scoresby. Wesley, like Scoresby, was a dreadful student; "he made very slow progress, labouring gloomily in the Fourth Form, his name appearing in the lists at number fifty-four out of a total of seventy-nine boys, many if not most of them younger than himself.

His command of the classics, for all the hours he was required to spend poring over Ovid and Caesar, remained so highly uncertain that in later life he was to pronounce that his two standard rules for public speaker were never to take on subjects he knew nothing about and, whenever possible, to avoid quoting Latin" Hibbert As a schoolboy, Wesley's simplicity "might be and was mistaken for stupidity" Aldington, Though today we know more than nineteenth-century biographers did about his early life, we still do not know much, the reason being that in his youth he neither said nor did anything memorable, and gave absolutely no hint of future greatness.

And so it is with his life as a subaltern, a captain, a major, and an aide-de-camp to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. It is a mere vacant space on the paper which is soon to be filled with the record of exploits such as struck the world with wonder; — a sure proof that the same simplicity of character which distinguished his Grace in after years belonged to him in youth" Brialmont and Gleig, These early biographers ingeniously explain away Wesley's embarrassing failure to make any lasting impression by creating the myth of a virtuous reluctance to draw attention to himself.

Wellington first made a name for himself as a military leader in India, where in he defeated a much larger enemy force. At the village of Assaye, Wesley led 7, men and 22 guns in an audacious attack on an enemy force of 40, men and over guns. Was this not a foolhardy deed? One of his volunteer soldiers wrote later, "I can assure you, till our troops got the order to advance the fate of the day seemed doubtful; and if the numerous cavalry of the enemy had done their duty I hardly think it possible we could have succeeded" quoted in Hibbert Wesley carried the day, and for this victory he was named Knight of the Bath.

He did not add a word" Ibid. If, perhaps, Twain did take an event from Wellington's experience in India and move it to the Crimea, in a curious reversal only a few years later another author fictionalized the charge of the Light Brigade — and placed it in India George Meredith 's Lord Ormont To say that Assaye was his greatest victory is an extraordinary claim, considering all his later triumphs in Spain, to say nothing of Waterloo.

Still, one modern historian asserts: "Without question Assaye was the greatest of Arthur Wellesley's Indian victories" Weller, Today, Wellington's reputation seems to rest on solid foundations.

But it was not always so. Even during his lifetime, envious detractors did not refrain from attributing his victories to good fortune. Biographers in the nineteenth century already sought to refute the notion that he was "the mere spoilt child of fortune. No doubt fortune enters largely into the events of war, but whatever certain authors may say to the contrary, no human being ever trusted less to accident than the Duke of Wellington" Brialmont and Gleig, Among the "certain authors" appears to be the French historian Adolphe Thiers.

Though generally full of praise for Wellington's good sense, and never claiming that he was a fool, at one point Thiers did carp: "Though little fertile in genius and hardy combination, Wellington was nevertheless attentive to the opportunities which fortune threw his way. He did not create, but he seized them, and that was generally sufficient, because the opportunities which fortune offers are always the surest" [Quoted in Brialmont and Gleig, n; for a somewhat different translation, see Thiers, There were also some English contemporaries who were at least initially skeptical of Wellington's abilities.

Thomas Creevey noted in his diary, "In the Lords, [Earl] Grey made an admirable speech, disputed the military, moral and intellectual fame of Lord Wellington most capitally" Creevey, That was in Five years later, even after Waterloo, Creevey was writing about the Duke, "he had not the least appearance of being a clever man" Ibid.

By Creevey's views were more nuanced: ". Like Scoresby, Wellington favorably impressed his contemporaries with his "curious simplicity" and lack of affectation. According to one of his hostesses, Mrs. Granville, he was "the most unpretentious, perfectly natural and amiable person" she had ever met. In Mrs. Calvert found him just the same good-humoured, unaffected creature he ever was" Hibbert, I got it from a clergyman who was an instructor at Woolwich forty years ago, and who vouched for its truth.

I t was at a banquet in London in honor of one of the two or three conspicuously illustrious English military names of this generation. For reasons which will presently appear, I will withhold his real name and titles, and call him Lieutenant General Lord Arthur Scoresby, V.

What a fascination there is in a renowned name! There sat the man, in actual flesh, whom I had heard of so many thousands of times since that day, thirty years before, when his name shot suddenly to the zenith from a Crimean battlefield, to remain forever celebrated. This verdict was a great surprise to me. If its subject had been Napoleon, or Socrates, or Solomon, my astonishment could not have been greater.

Mark Twain bibliography

Two things I was well aware of: that the Reverend was a man of strict veracity, and that his judgement of men was good. Therefore I knew, beyond doubt or question, that the world was mistaken about this hero: he was a fool. So I meant to find out, at a convenient moment, how the Reverend, all solitary and alone, had discovered the secret. Some days later the opportunity came, and this is what the Reverend told me.

About forty years ago I was an instructor in the military academy at Woolwich. I was present in one of the sections when young Scoresby underwent his preliminary examination. He was evidently good, and sweet, and lovable, and guileless; and so it was exceedingly painful to see him stand there, as serene as a graven image, and deliver himself of answers which were veritably miraculous for stupidity and ignorance.

All the compassion in me was aroused in his behalf. I said to myself, when he comes to be examined again, he will be flung over, of course; so it will be simply a harmless act of charity to ease his fall as much as I can.

If you'll believe me, he went through with flying colors on examination day! He went through on that purely superficial "cram," and got compliments too, while others, who knew a thousand times more than he, got plucked. It was stupefying. Now of course the thing that would expose him and kill him at last was mathematics. I resolved to make his death as easy as I could; so I drilled him and crammed him, and crammed him and drilled him, just on the line of questions which the examiners would be most likely to use, and then launching him on his fate.

Well, sir, try to conceive of the result: to my consternation, he took the first prize! And with it he got a perfect ovation in the way of compliments. There was no more sleep for me for a week. My conscience tortured me day and night. I felt as guilty and miserable as the creator of Frankenstein. Here was a woodenhead whom I had put in the way of glittering promotions and prodigious responsibilities, and but one thing could happen: he and his responsibilities would all go to ruin together at the first opportunity.

The Crimean war had just broken out. Of course there had to be a war, I said to myself: we couldn't have peace and give this donkey a chance to die before he is found out.


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